Artists routinely positioned blacks at the edge of the canvas. This painting of Cassiobury Park is an example.
These records show the baptisms of three black servants in the 18th century.
The burials of two black men are recorded in Watford parish records.
A gravestone in St Mary's churchyard tells the story of one of Cassiobury's black servants.
Estate records from the 18th century list 'Doney the Black' among the servants.
An introduction to the history of Cassiobury House, the Earls of Essex and the park.
An engraving of servants at Cassiobury from 1774, perhaps offering satirical comment on their masters' behaviour.
The militia lists from 1782-86 record the name of George Doney, a servant at Cassiobury, who was captured in Gambia as a child.
My husband nicknamed me the "Cassiobury Kid". I went to Cassiobury School, lived on the Cassiobury Estate and my parents having moved from Watford after my father retired, named their house in Sussex 'Cassiobury'.
A painting by Turner shows a black servant who is well-dressed and evidently enjoys high status among his workmates.
Life before Watford was turned inside out